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February 6th, 1866. 
James Hunt, Esq., Ph.D., P.S.A., F.R.S.L., President, in the Chaik. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

The names of the following gentlemen who had been elected Fellows 
and Local Secretaries of the Society were then announced. Francis 
Campin, C.E., 6, Salisbury Street, Strand ; Thomas Edmondston, 
Esq., 6, Albany Street, Edinburgh; Benjamin Hinde, Esq., M.D., 
Tarbert, co. Kerry ; Louis Henry Mignot, Esq., 50, Upper Harley 
Street, Cavendish Square; W. S. Pendon, Esq., M.D., 13, Wellington 
Street, Belfast ; James Pinnock, Esq., The Hawthornes, New Road, 
Hammersmith ; Capt. James Smyth, 69th regiment, North Camp, 
Aklershot ; A. Walker, Esq., Preston, Kirkbean, Dumfries. Local 
Secretaries: — Theodor A. Bosenbusch, Esq., Sierra Leone ; George 
Mott, Esq., Morningside, Victoria. 

Mr. Blake announced that the following presents had been received, 
and thanks were voted to the donors. Photographs of Australian 
Aborigines (John Fraser, Esq.) ; Les Statues du Priape (W. Eassie, 
Esq.) ; On the Feebleminded and Idiotic (Dr. P. M. Duncan) ; On the 
Mammary Glands of Echidna Hystrix (Prof. Owen). 

Mr. Beavan said, A letter has been received by the Hon. Sec. from 
Mr. G. Jasper Nicholls, our Local Secretary at Oude. In this com- 
munication Mr. Nicholls desires to inform the Society that he pur- 
poses investigating the country stretching from the Santhal Pergun- 
nas in the central provinces to the ancient boundaries of the Telenga 
country. This exjjedition will doubtless be of great use to anthro- 
pology ; but Mr. Nicholls requests direction and information concern- 
ing those points especially to be noted by him. The forthcoming 
instructions to Local Secretaries will, however, contain all the sug- 
gestions likely to be needed, and from Mr. Nicholl's character for per- 
severance and energy, there is no doubt but that he will do justice to 
the Society's inquiries. 

The President observed, that the preparation of instructions for 
the Local Secretaries of the Society was a matter of considerable im- 
portance, which was now under consideration, and when they were 
completed a copy of the instructions would be forwarded to Mr. 
Nicholls, and would no doubt give him the information he required. 

Mr. Bollaert read the following paper communicated by Dr. Hyde 
Clarke : — 

Notes on the People inliabiting Moravian Wallachia. By Hyde 
Clarke, Esq., LL.D., Loc. Sec. A.S.L., President of the Academy 
of Anatolia, Member of the German Asiatic Society, Society of 
Northern Antiquaries, etc. 

Several of the races in Tin-key are much distributed, and the Wal- 
lachians constitute a well-marked example. In the Roumelian border 
they are found mixed in groups and spots with Albanians, Slaves, etc., 

Clarice on the People inhabiting Moravian Wallachia. xci 

and they penetrate among the Magyars and Slavonians. When in 
Wallachia I heard some interesting traits of the way in which a com- 
munity of feeling and intercourse is kept up among the scattered 
members, and the way in which this distribution affects the various 

My attention has been called to the publication by M. D. P. Mart- 
ziano in Wallachian, of an article on Moravian Wallachia, which, 
however, I cannot here procure, but of which there is a long notice 
in the Journal of Constantinople. As the Bucimal and the Journal are 
equally inaccessible to English readers, I have thought some account 
may be desirable. 

Wallachian Moravia or Moravian Wallachia is a district in the 
east of Moravia among the mountains in the head-waters of the Lubina, 
a feeder of the Oder, and of the Beciva, a feeder of the Morava, and so 
of the Black Sea. The population is about 50,000 or 60,000, and 
the chief town is Roznau, with 3,000 inhabitants, a bathing place. 
Walachish Mezeritsch is a small town. 

The people are recognised by the Moravians as belonging to an 
alien race, but they speak Slavonic. Their classification has not yet 
been decided. M. Martziano having gone to Roznau for the benefit 
of his health, was struck by the appearance of being among a Walla- 
chian peojsle, and he has applied himself to study their relations. 

Of the history of the peopile nothing is hnown. In his attempts to 
determine the classification by the philological method, he appears to 
have been baffled ; for, notwithstanding a determined analysis of the 
local dialect, he has not been able to bring forward any evidence 
against its Slavonic character. He therefore applied himself to j>hy- 
sical characteristics, and he affirms that these are distinctly Wallachian, 
particularly in the beauty of the women. He has further applied 
himself to the race features, and upon these he greatly relies as con- 
firmatory of a Wallachian type. As to what he says of the pronuncia- 
tion being more melodious than is usual among Slaves, this apj)ears 
to be of very doubtful value. He affirms that the popular legends 
and songs confirm, but of this we do not as yet know the evidence. 
He says their habits and clothing are distinctly recognisable ; and 
this last feature really marks the Wallachians. Their mode of feed- 
ing and habits generally he identified, and he observed a particular 
antipathy towards the Slaves. What he strongly relies upon, how- 
ever, must command the attention of all who know Wallachia, and 
that is what is euphuistically described as the little taste the women 
have for sacrificing to Vesta. This must be acknowledged as a 
striking evidence of identity. 

With regard to this characteristic it may be observed, that late 
advices represent the Wallachian coup d'etat government as about to 
restrict the licence of divorce with a view of purifying the country, a 
measure of questionable morality, as it may break down the last 
barrier of decency, for it is believed there may be women in Walla- 
chia who are satisfied with only so many husbands as the liberty of 
divorce affords them, and such moderation could no longer be legiti- 
mately gratified. 

xcii Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

On the motion of the President the thanks of the Society were 
voted to Dr. Clarke. 

Mr. Cabteb Blake read the following letter from Gaboon : — 

" Gaboon, October 2, 1865. 
" My dear Sir, — As a ship sails for Liverpool direct to morrow, 
I avail myself of the opportunity to forward to the Anthropological 
Society a Fan shield and nine Fan spears, which my agent in Liver- 
pool will send on to yon, and which I trust may safely reach you. I 
had every hope of sending, per same opportunity, the skeleton of an 
Mpongwe, but, during my absence in search of a gorilla, the bush in 
which it lay was fired by the people (as is their wont in the dry sea- 
son) and the skeleton was completely destroyed. However, I trust 
to have the pleasure of sending you something better in a month's 
time, as I go away the day after to-morrow on a shooting excursion, 
during which I hope to pick up something, and afterwards I go to 
Camma. " Very truly yours, 

"K. B. N. Walker." 

Mr. H. J. C. Beavan then read a paper : " Notes on the Kaces in- 
habiting Spain," which will appear at length in the Memoirs. 

The paper commenced with a short account of the various races 
and crosses of races in Spain. The author divided them into four 
distinct classes ; the Spaniards proper, the Basques, the descendants 
of the Moors, and the Gitanos. The Morescoes (or descendants of the 
Moors) are to some extent of pure blood, but the great majority of 
them have intermarried with Spaniards. The next point touched on 
was the general character of the inhabitants ; and here the author 
quoted remarks from Swinburne, Zamacola, Serviez, and the few 
other writers who have made the people of Spain their study. A 
short notice of the Basques and their language followed ; and in con- 
clusion the author expressed a hope that we should ere long have 
better opportunities of studying the anthropology of S23ain, especially 
since the formation of an Anthropological Society at Madrid. 

" In concluding these few remarks," he added, " I must express a 
hope that ere long we may have some really useful and reliable infor- 
mation concerning anthropology in Spain. The field is a new one ; it 
is rich in many ways ; and I think, with time and attention, that a 
large number of facts may be obtained which will be of service to our 
Society in the prosecution of its studies of the science of man." 

The thanks of the meeting having been given to Mr. Beavan for 
his paper, 

Mr. C. Carter Blake read the following communication on the 
subject from Dr. Charnock : — 

Dr. Charnock said,* that to arrive at an accurate knowledge of the 
peoples of Spain it would be as well to look somewhat into its early 
history. The earliest inhabitants of the Peninsula appear to have 
been the Iberians and Celts. At an early period the seaports and 

* Printed from Dr. Chamock's MS. by order of the Council. — Ed.